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Everything You Need To Know About A Puppy’s Vaccination

Everything You Need To Know About A Puppy's Vaccination

Vaccination is an act of prevention and protection It’s the 1st veterinary health check of your puppy. This assessment should be considered from an early age, in order to check the growth, identification, and vaccination status of your animal. Your veterinarian will explain to you in consultation against which infectious diseases your puppy can be vaccinated against and at what cost? 

To protect your puppy from certain infectious diseases that It could contract, it is strongly recommended to have It vaccinated in order to promote the establishment of group vaccine protection (principle of public health). As diseases can also affect adult dogs, you will need to adhere to a vaccination schedule set up with your veterinarian throughout Its life.

What to vaccinate It against?

“Essential” vaccines

Usually, a puppy is preventively vaccinated against several diseases, potentially fatal. The so-called “essential” vaccines are vaccines against the viruses of distemper, infectious hepatitis (or rubarth’s disease), and parvovirus. Rabies vaccination is applied on a case-by-case basis but may be compulsory (or even previously).

Distemper
It is caused by a morbillivirus and has a mortality rate of 50%. Transmission occurs primarily through inhalation of the virus present in the air and sometimes through direct contact with the virus. Sometimes the immune system manages to eradicate the infection. Otherwise, the disease sets in its acute form and can be fatal within 2 to 4 weeks. It mainly affects young unvaccinated animals.

The disease can present in different forms: fever, depression, cough, runny nose and eyes, loss of appetite then vomiting, diarrhea, and finally potentially fatal nervous disorders. Treatments will consist of reducing the severity of symptoms by administering antibiotics, anti-diarrhea, anti-vomiting, pain relievers, and anticonvulsants if needed.

Canine infectious hepatitis or Rubarth’s disease
It is caused by canine adenovirus 1. Although currently rarer thanks to the vaccination of canine populations, when it occurs it remains highly contagious and presents in an acute to acute form, sometimes fatal. Transmission occurs by ingestion of urine, contaminated feces, or saliva. In cases of the overacute form in puppies less than 3 weeks old, there are very few or no symptoms, this is called sudden death. In the acute form, the gradually worsening hepatitis accounts for fever, depression, loss of appetite, vomiting/diarrhea, jaundice (jaundice), and abdominal pain. The death rate is around 20%.

The animal can recover in a few weeks without major sequelae or on the contrary, it can deteriorate and die. Rarely, a mild form is encountered manifesting as just a little fever and diarrhea. There is no specific treatment. The puppy/dog will be treated to reduce the severity of the symptoms: infusion, antibiotics, anti-diarrhea, anti-vomiting, anti-pain. Prevention involves isolation and vaccination.

Parvovirus
It is caused by canine parvovirus type 2. It has a mortality rate of 10 to 20% (sometimes more) and is manifested by hemorrhagic gastroenteritis which is particularly dangerous in puppies. The virus is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated excrement or by indirect contact with a contaminated environment/object/person because the virus is very resistant in the environment. Symptoms are fever, depression, loss of appetite, vomiting, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and dehydration.

The complications will be anemia and a state of shock which can lead to death. Treatment should be aggressive, in isolation, and in intensive care. It will consist of relieving the symptoms by rehydrating the puppy and administering It an infusion, transfusion, antibiotics, anti-emesis, anti-diarrhea, and painkiller.

Rage
It is caused by a lyssavirus. Extremely serious, it can be transmitted to humans. It is a notifiable disease. The virus is transmitted by a bite through contaminated saliva. In the incubation period, the time between the infection is contracted and the onset of symptoms is long (several weeks to months). Symptoms are those of inflammation of the brain and range from changes in the animal’s behavior, to aggression, altered barking, difficulty swallowing, and progressive paralysis. Death then occurs within 5-7 days. There is no cure. Any animal suspected of having rabies or for which the infection has been confirmed will be euthanized.

Other vaccines may be of interest to implement depending on the family and environmental situation of the puppy: these are vaccines against leptospirosis, kennel cough, piroplasmosis, and leishmaniasis.

Other recommended vaccines

Leptospirosis
It is caused by Leptospira interrogans bacteria. It can be transmitted to humans. Transmission occurs by contact between a wound and infected urine and more rarely by bite through saliva, by passage through the placenta, or by ingestion of infected meat. Rats are the major reservoir of the disease. The infection can present in an overacute form, which results in very rapid death, or a subacute or even chronic form.

The symptoms are not very specific at first with fever, loss of appetite, and depression. Then there will be jaundice (jaundice), vomiting/diarrhea, nasal discharge, weight loss, abdominal pain, and diffuse muscle pain. The disease can be complicated by acute kidney and liver failure. We may also encounter uveitis, meningitis, and abortions. Remission is possible, however, once infected dogs can remain carriers without showing symptoms for a while. There is a specific antibiotic treatment for the pathogen to which treatments will be added to relieve the symptoms: infusion, anti-vomiting, anti-diarrhea, and painkillers.

Kennel cough
It is an epidemic of multifactorial respiratory disease. It can be caused by a combination of bacterial and viral pathogens. The main bacterium is Bordetella bronchiseptica and the main viruses are parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus 1 and 2, canine reovirus, canine herpes virus, and canine coronavirus. It is transmitted by contact with particles from sneezing and sputum of affected dogs. The infection is very contagious in places where dogs are present in large numbers with close contact such as kennels, boarding houses, shelters, dog shows, etc.

The lesions caused in the trachea and upper respiratory tract are at the origin of a characteristic cough, variable in intensity and duration, sneezing, and runny nose and eyes. The cough when it is very strong may make you want to vomit. It is accentuated when the animal gets angry or exercises. There may also be a fever and the condition may develop into pneumonia. Symptoms appear 3 to 5 days after infection and can last up to more than 3 weeks.Dogs mostly recover completely. Treatment consists of antibiotics, cough suppressants, bronchodilators, and anti-inflammatory drugs to calm the cough. Prevention involves isolation and vaccination.

Piroplasmosis
It is caused by a blood protozoan parasite Babesia sp. Transmission occurs through the bite of a tick. The blood parasite localizes in red blood cells and destroys them. Symptoms are hemoglobin in the urine, pale mucous membranes, fever, depression, and loss of appetite. In its acute form, the disease is fatal following hypotensive shock and hypothermia.

The disease can be complicated by acute renal failure, liver failure, anemia in the weeks or months following infection. There is a specific antiparasitic treatment to which treatments will be added to reduce the intensity of the symptoms. Prevention involves vaccination.

Leishmaniasis
It is caused by a protozoan parasite of the Leishmania type. Transmission occurs through the bite of a mosquito, the sandfly. The incubation time of the disease varies from a few months to several years. It is sometimes difficult to recognize it because it can manifest itself in different forms. The symptoms are variable because many organs are affected and the evolution is rather slow and gradual.

There will be skin lesions, weight loss, decreased appetite, muscle-melting in the face, swelling of the lymph nodes, eye damage, chronic diarrhea, kidney failure, liver failure, nosebleeds, anemia or lameness. There is a specific antiparasitic treatment to which treatments will be added to reduce the intensity of the symptoms. The cure rate is low, but remission is often observed when the organ damage is not too severe. Prevention involves vaccination.

When to vaccinate your dog?

Until 12 weeks old, your puppy is partially protected by the antibodies given by its mother through breastfeeding. The effectiveness of these antibodies ceases quickly and to prevent It from contracting infectious diseases, vaccination should be considered before. In general, the primary vaccination is done in 2 or even 3 stages. The 1st injection is 6-8 weeks and the reminders are every 3 to 4 weeks to 16 weeks and 1 year after the first injection. Beyond that, the frequency of boosters varies depending on the vaccine, the region, and the animal’s lifestyle.

The rage can not be done legally only from the age of 3 months, the vaccine will be legally valid 21 days after injection, the 1st reminder occurs one year after the 1st injection then the following boosters will be performed every 1 to 3 years depending on the vaccine.

The reminders throughout your dog’s life are necessary to properly stimulate the immunity set up by vaccination against the various pathogens targeted.

precise vaccination schedule will be set up precisely with your veterinarian in an individual and adapted manner.

To summarize: The vaccines against distemper, Infectious Hepatitis, and Parvovirus will be very strongly recommended to It, they are often grouped together in 1 injection. To these can be added the vaccination against leptospirosis which is also strongly recommended. Then, depending on the case, the veterinarian will suggest vaccination against rabies, kennel cough, piroplasmosis, and leishmaniasis.

The cost of puppy/dog vaccines?

For the implementation of the vaccination protocol, it will take at least 2 vaccine consultations in the 1st year of your puppy. The prices are quite variable and depend on the region in which you live and the veterinary structure that you frequent.

On average, count between 60 and 70 $ per consultation and an overall budget of around 160-200 $ for the first year, depending on the vaccine options chosen.

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