Jack Russell Terrier: Dog Breed Profile

Jack russell terrier

The Jack Russell Terrier is a robust, very active dog with a strong personality. It has an elastic body, of medium height.  This energetic hound dog breed needs to be exercised well enough to thrive.

History of the breed

The Parson Russel Terrier was created by Pastor John Jack Russel in the 19th century, to whom we also owe the Jack Russel. An English pastor who was passionate about hunting and known as a breeder of Fox Terriers.

His goal was to find a dog capable of running fast, but also to go underground to dislodge foxes and prey in burrows Since the second world war. The Parson Russel Terrier has knows a growing success since then. The breed was provisionally recognized by the FCI in 1990.

Physical features

  • Its coat: can be of 2 different textures (soft or hard), but it remains short enough and made to withstand bad weather.
  • Its color: mostly white with black or tan spots. The tawny spots can range from light to dark.
    Its head has a flat skull of moderate width. The latter decreases in width the more we go down towards the eyes and the muzzle.
  • Its ears: V-shaped fall towards the front of the head. They are usually chestnut-colored, but they can also be white or spotted.
  • Its eyes: small, dark, and almond-shaped.
  • Its body: slightly longer than high. His neck is well pronounced as his chest remains muscular. Its silhouette recalls that of the Fox Terrier.
  • Its tail: drooping when the dog is at rest, but it must be trained when it is having fun or if it’s excited.

Behavior With Others

Unlike the Jack Russel which is popular as a companion dog, the Parson Russel Terrier is mainly used as a hunting dog.

Cohabitation with other dogs can be problematic. When hunting, it’s appreciated for its vigor, its capacity for work, and its tenacity. It’s very intelligent, this dog will be educated without any particular difficulty. A minimum of firmness will however be necessary. Despite a hunting instinct, It loves family life. It’s also a good playmate for children.


With the Jack Russell Terrier, priority should be given to education. Its activity often makes It not very attentive in the long term. It’s therefore advisable to stimulate Its attention by games or short orders but each time synonymous with reward.

Thus, It will learn easily. Care must be taken to be firm without neglecting the gentleness that will appeal to this dog.

Living Conditions

The Jack Russell Terrier is not really made to live in the city although they adapt easily to it. However, Its character is not compatible with life as a solitary cloistered in an apartment.

Its ideal place to live remains a house in the countryside with a garden so that It can walk around and exercise.

Health & Maintenance

This robust dog, unfortunately, suffers from some hereditary diseases sometimes due to inbreeding. It’s important to choose it well, as some specimens remain subject to hyperactivity with behavior that is difficult to control.

Like all small breed dogs, care should be taken to control their teeth, which are often too large for their small jaw. It remains sensitive to the formation of tartar in particular.

This breed is susceptible to:

  • Hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia which results in degeneration of nerve cells. It appears between the 2 and 9th month of life of the puppy. The symptoms are reflected in particular by epileptic seizures , and balance disorders. There is no cure.
  • Dislocation of the lens.

The life expectancy of a Jack Russell Terrier is, on average, between 13 years and 16 years.

The Jack Russell Terrier remains subject to permanent molting with stronger periods in the fall and spring. This is explained by the absence of an undercoat and that is why this dog is losing Its hair abundantly.

It’s recommended to brush the dog with a brush or a rubber glove. Do not wash the dog too often, approximately every 4 months for those living in the city and when it gets really dirty in the countryside.

The diet of the Jack Russell Terrier should be adapted to Its lifestyle. This canine is easily satisfied with an industrial diet based on high-quality pates or croquettes

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Maltese: Dog Breed Profile


The Maltese is a small dog, calm and very intelligent who has a narrow and long trunk, small in size with a long silky white coat. It’s a very elegant little dog with a proud and distinguished head carriage.

The Bichon Maltais is an adorable companion dog, with a very fine coat that should be taken care of with the greatest delicacy. The maintenance of this canine is special. For the rest, Its education and Its diet are rather easy.

It’s a very pleasant dog to live with, attached to Its master, to children, and who loves cuddles. It’s lively and alert and possesses robust health.

Other names: Bichon Maltais, Maltese

History of the breed

The Maltese breed is very old and dates back to Antiquity. The famous Aristotle (384-322 BC) referred to a breed of small dogs that he called ” canes melitenses ” in his nomenclature of dogs existing at the time.

Its name could derive from the Phoenician “màlat” which means “refuge” or “port”, and whose semantic root is found in the Sicilian city of Melita. Indeed, the ancestors of these small dogs then lived on the periphery of the Central Mediterranean in the ports and on the ships, where they hunted the rats and mice which infested the port stores and the holds of the boats.

Physical features

  • Its coat: silky texture, without waviness, dense, shiny, and very long. It easily reaches 8 inches in length and can exceed the height of the withers.
  • Its color: pure white but it can sometimes pull on pale ivory.
  • Its head: rather large with a flat skull.
  • Its ears: triangular in shape and drooping. They are located high on the skull and well provided with hair.
  • Its eyes: small, rounded, and very dark.
  • Its body: has a narrow and long trunk, a little over 8 inches at the withers. The limbs are muscular with a robust bone structure.
  • Its tail: short and drooping.

Behavior With Others

The Maltese is a rather gentle dog and very adaptable. But like all dogs, good habits will need to be learned from the start. Many owners let themselves be overwhelmed by their Bichon Maltais quite simply because its small size does not make it “compulsory” to establish rules of life.

However, like all dogs, your Maltese will have to learn to manage Its frustration and Its need for spending will have to be met otherwise Its character may prove to be difficult.

The Maltese can be prone to excessive barking if it is not spent enough, if it suffers from separation anxiety or if the rules of life are not clear.

The Maltese can get along very well with children as long as they are respected and have the possibility of going in their basket to be quiet when they need it.

It can live with other animals but for this to happen, it will have to be positively and regularly socialized before its 3 months.


The Maltese must be educated as early as possible so that it cannot adopt bad habits: climbing on armchairs, being capricious, being a pot of glue. It loves cuddles more than anything and will not hesitate to climb onto Its master’s knees even without inviting It to do so.

In fact, it’s important to make this canine understand that these moments of caress are decided by Its master or Its adoptive family.

For the rest, It does not present any difficulty in education.

Living Conditions

The Maltese is a companion dog, its need for exercise is logically less important than a so-called “working” dog. However, a dog remains a dog, so it will be necessary to walk your Bichon Maltais every day for at least 30 minutes, even if you have a garden.

It can easily adapt to living in an apartment. Its small size and Its need for moderate expenditure make It a very adaptable dog.

Wearing a coat should be expected during winter and cooling strategies should be implemented during summer. The small body of the Bichon Maltese is sensitive to extreme temperatures, both hot and cold.

Health & Maintenance

Despite what its small size might suggest, the Bichon Maltais is a robust dog who very rarely gets sick. It can very occasionally develop a few problems such as eye infections or suffer from weakened teeth and gums.

Finally, It can also dislocate a kneecap. In addition, it does not like humidity and cold. It’s important to be careful during winter so that he does not catch a cold.

Among the genetic diseases of the Maltese, the breed is likely to be affected by:

  •  heart problems s such as patent ductus arteriosus and MVD
  •  diseases of the digestive sphere such as portosystemic shunt or pyloric stenosis which exposes it to chronic vomiting
  •  musculoskeletal disorders such as hernias or abnormality hindlimb called varus
  • various neurological conditions

The life expectancy of a Bichon Maltese is, on average, between 12 years and 15 years.

The Bichon Maltese’s fur is long and silky, so it requires careful and daily care. As it can exceed in length and height of the withers, it needs to be brushed every day with a suitable brush to untangle all knots.

This small dog is also subject to an annual moult which should be accompanied by a suitable diet, rich in vegetable fibers. To avoid infections, it’s also necessary to thoroughly cleanse the secretions that embarrass Its eyes, once a week.

Good hygiene prevents all infections that could complicate the life of the  Maltese. For this, it is recommended to show special attention to Its eyes, ears, and teeth.

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Chihuahua: Dog Breed Profile



The Chihuahua is the smallest dog breed in the world and is very popular today. Very appreciated for its small size and its qualities as a companion dog, the Chihuahua remains a dog that can be temperamental, even aggressive, especially if it is not educated and socialized.

Adopting a Chihuahua should be a pleasure and a joy, but we must not forget to consider It as a dog! So, learning to set limits, educating It, socializing It, and not overprotecting It will be your main missions, if you want to adopt a Chihuahua.

History of the breed

The Chihuahua is a very old dog breed. It is considered the smallest in the world. Its name simply comes from the largest state in the Republic of Mexico: the state of Chihuahua .

It would have lived there in total freedom before being domesticated by the natives at the time of the Toltecs. At the end of the 19th century, this dog was exported in masse to the United States and Europe followed.

Physical features

  • Its coat: can be of 2 varieties. The first short-haired is lying on the body, shiny and soft. The second long-haired remains fine, silky, smooth, or slightly wavy.
  • Its color: all possible colors and shades.
  • Its head: rounded in the shape of an apple with a short muzzle.
  • Its ears: erect, large, and wide apart. They become thinner towards the end.
  • Its eyes: little protruding with a strong expression. They remain large, very rounded, and dark in color.
  • Its body: compact and well structured, withers little marked, short and firm back, wide and well let down the chest.
  • Its tail: Set on high, of moderate length and wide at the base. It thins towards the end.

Behavior With Others

“Small dog but a big character!” This is probably due to the fact that its small size gives it a number of privileges that a dog with a larger build would not have. Indeed, most Chihuahua owners tend to overprotect their dog, but this can result in an increase in the character of this dog, thus feeling “all-powerful”.

You must, indeed, be more vigilant with a Chihuahua but it must be done intelligently. Educating It, socializing It with other dogs, setting limits is also very important because this will allow It to have a reassuring environment. Indeed, a Chihuahua or a dog in general who has no limits, will not necessarily be happy and may become anxious and stressed.

The chihuahua has the reputation of being a rather “talkative” dog. In addition, its bark is sharp and quite powerful compared to its small size. Fortunately, it is possible to limit this barking with proper education and ensuring that your puppy’s needs are met.

The Chihuahua can live with children, however, this small dog can be temperamental, and often the owners do not appreciate the importance of educating and socializing it from an early age. Yet a Chihuahua bite on a child’s face can be dramatic. This is why you will have to be rigorous and get your dog used to the presence of children. It will also be necessary to respect certain safety rules and teach children the behaviors to adopt when living with a dog, such as not carrying or not waking it up, not harming it, etc.

As with all dog breeds, if you want to have several species coexist, they will have to be accustomed early and positively. Also, be careful, the Chihuahua due to its small size could more easily be injured in the presence of animals of larger sizes.


The Chihuahua does not present any difficulty in Its education even if it’s preferable like any small dog with a strong character to do it from an early age. It’s about being firm and it will be, faithful and discreet.

Very stubborn, It could then be uncontrollable and do as It pleases. We must not spare this canine which will then respond perfectly to orders. It’s suggested that It socialize very quickly so that It can be pleasant with strangers and other animals.

Living Conditions

The Chihuahua is a companion dog, so its need for exercise will obviously be less than that of a Malinois , for example. However, It will need daily expenditure to feel good. Thus, a daily walk of 30 minutes, outside the garden, will be the minimum to grant It Its balance and Its well-being.

It’s also a dog who does not support loneliness. If It feels lonely, bored, or not exercised enough, It will show Its frustration by chewing everything It can or barking excessively.

The Chihuahua, due to its small size and its role as a companion dog, will not be the right candidate for sports activities. Of course, It will be able and enjoy participating in family life, but offering It intense physical or sports activities will not necessarily be possible.

This little dog can adapt perfectly to living in an apartment. However, you will have to remember to take it out regularly, even if you have a garden.

Chihuahuas are Mexican dogs who love the sun and the heat that they endure quite well! Close to the ground and little “naturally equipped” against the cold, Chihuahuas fear low temperatures. During winter, the coat is therefore mandatory if you live in a region where the cold season is quite chill.

Health & Maintenance

With a fragile appearance, the Chihuahua is however robust and enjoys a good life expectancy. It’s not at all fragile and can live for more than 20 years. It’s prone to eye irritation if Its eyes are not maintained regularly.

The calving are sometimes difficult because of its very small size. There are also some congenital heart diseases (pulmonary stenosis or mitral endocardiosis) and neurological (hydrocephalus).  It can sometimes be chilly and should therefore be kept away from drafts and outdoors in winter.

Here are the few problems that can be present in this breed of dog:

Puppy hypoglycemia

Like many puppies with a small build, their rapid metabolism and low-fat stores can make them prone to hypoglycemia. Like us humans, this corresponds to a drop in blood sugar (sugar levels) and can lead to stunted growth if left untreated.

Dislocation of the patella

About 30% of Chihuahuas can be affected by this problem, which results in lameness and can be inherited or caused by physical trauma.

Skin diseases

The Chihuahua can also be susceptible to various forms of demodicosis and other skin problems. Often, increased vigilance and a quality diet will limit these health problems.

The life expectancy of a Chihuahua is, on average, between 14 years and 18 years

The Chihuahua is a naturally clean little dog that requires little maintenance. The long-haired Chihuahua will require more maintenance to avoid knots. Inspect Its eyes and ears regularly.

Whether long or short-haired, Its coat is odorless. It should be brushed regularly. It should be washed from time to time with warm water and a mild shampoo.

The Chihuahua’s diet must be based on high-quality kibble. It should not be too stuffy to not alter its digestive system and cause some health concerns.

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Coton de Tulear: Dog Breed Profile

Coton de Tulear

The Coton de Tulear is a small breed of dogs, very playful and with a look full of mischief. It’s the perfect candidate as a companion dog, thanks to Its very pleasant and affectionate character as well as Its great attachment to its master.

History of the breed

The Coton de Tulear has its origins in the Tuléar region in the south of Madagascar. Like many breeds, the history of this breed remains uncertain. Nevertheless, its descent with various types of bichons, present on the commercial ships of French settlers in the 16th century, is evident.

Physical features

  • Its hair: fine can be slightly wavy. As the name suggests, its coat has a cottony texture.
  • Its color: mainly white which can show gray or tan spots on the ears.
  • Its head: triangular in shape seen from above. The skull is rounded and the muzzle remains shorter than the skull.
  • Its ears: thin, drooping, triangular, and about 3 inches long.
  • Its eyes: round, dark, and sparkling Its body: short on legs with a body a little longer than high
  • Its tail: set very low, but when the dog is excited, it is curved over Its back.

Behavior With Others

The Coton de Tulear is a small dog full of life, who will be very attached to Its masters, so much so that It will not stand loneliness very well. It will therefore require a regular presence and / or educational work concerning the management of loneliness.

Very playful, It will be the perfect companion for a family with children. In addition, the Coton de Tulear can be quite suspicious of people It does not know. You will therefore have to respect Its signals and not force It to make contact if It does not wish to.

It’s not known to be a particularly barking dog. However, their bark can be very piercing.

The Coton is quite inclined to live with other species, nevertheless, it’s important that it has been sufficiently socialized during its period of development. However, the Coton de Tulear is a dog that adapts very quickly as long as it finds its account and that one takes care of it properly.


The Coton de Tulear is a very intelligent dog that will capsize the hearts of its owners to gain access to certain privileges. Education must therefore be firm, while of course respecting the nature of the dog.

Seducer at heart, this dog requires a certain firmness. It knows how to use Its charms to get what It wants. Very intelligent, It quickly assimilates the orders given to It.

Living Conditions

Coton de Tulear is certainly a companion dog but, like all of Its congeners, It needs a daily expenditure outside the garden of at least 30 minutes. Indeed, undesirable behavior could be caused by a lack of expenditure! A dog who is bored and has not been able to externalize Its energy can quickly become hell to deal with.

Being very playful, good educational and fun games sessions will be welcome. Walks will also be essential.

It can live in an apartment as well as in a house. It harmonizes very easily with your lifestyle as long as you don’t forget your walk.

This dog is very well freed from hot climates, similar to that of Madagascar, the island where the breed originates from. They can however quite live in colder temperatures but will need a coat to brave the winter weather.

Health & Maintenance

This dog enjoys excellent health. Very strong and of good constitution, Coton de Tulear remains subject to allergies causing itching of the skin up to the risk of bacterial infection.

Among the hereditary diseases of Coton de Tulear, we can notably mention:

  • diseases of the nervous system such as cerebellar cortical abiotrophy, necrotizing encephalitis or even neonatal ataxia,
  • urinary diseases such as primary hyperoxaluria or ammonium urate urolithiasis (urinary stones),
  • von Willebrand disease which consists of blood clotting disorders,
  • type 2 multifocal retinopathy, which can be the cause of vision disturbance from the first months of the animal’s life.

The life expectancy of a Coton de Tulear is, on average, between 14 years and 16 years.

The coat of the Coton de Tulear requires a lot of attention. Almost daily brushing is essential to prevent irreversible nodes. If the dog’s fluffy coat isn’t groomed regularly, even a professional groomer won’t be able to do anything about it.

They will then have to shave it. Finally, this breed does not experience seasonal shedding, just very little hair loss all year round.

Almost daily brushing is required with a bath per month approximately in order to preserve the texture of its hair and its plush aspect. Coton de Tulear must be used to this healthy lifestyle from an early age. Brushing will quickly become a beautiful moment of sharing between the dog and his master. However, you must make sure to use a shampoo suited to Its hair and dry it properly with a hairdryer.

The Coton de Tulear diet can be made with croquettes, pates, or fresh ingredients as part of a homemade diet. If you opt for industrial products, you will have to pay attention to their quality and, in particular, their content of animal proteins and essential fatty acids.

If, on the contrary, your choice is a household ratio, consider having it balanced by a veterinarian so that it does not lack the nutrients and macronutrients essential for the good health of your dog!

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Shih Tzu: Dog Breed Profile

Shih tzu

The Shih Tzu is a small companion dog native to Asia that is characterized by its long hair falling in front of the eyes. Capable of great affection towards Its owners, the Shih Tzu is a sociable and very pleasant dog breed.

However, be careful to successfully educate your Shih Tzu, you must, first of all, educate it accordingly, take it out sufficiently and socialize it as much as possible.

Other names: Chrysanthemum dog, lion dog

History of the breed

The Shih Tzu breed originates from Tibet. In Tibetan, its name means “lion dog” and in Tibetan culture, it’s related to the Tibetan Mastiff, otherwise known as “snow lion”. The breed is sometimes confused with the Lhasa Apso, although many differences exist.

Historically, it’s the product of a cross between a Lhasa-Apso and a Pekingese. Its popularity originated in the Forbidden City in Beijing in the 19th century, when the Empress made it her pet. The Shih Tzu will then be nicknamed “the pearl of the empress”.

And it was after 1912 and the transformation of the country into a Republic that this breed gradually migrated to the West and Europe. However, it was not until 1931 that the breed arrived in Britain. It was not allowed to compete in exhibitions until after World War II. The breed was subsequently introduced in 1930 in England and then in 1953 in France.

Physical features

  • Its coat: is long, silky and no hair loss occurs, whatever the season.
  • Its color: predominantly black, white, or fawn and spots (ranging from light to dark). There are also Shih Tzus with monochrome coats but often adorned with wicks that modify the initial colors.
  • Its head: Its skull is flat and narrow, the muzzle of a medium to small size.
  • Its ears: fall to the sides of the head. They have the color of the hairs that surround and cover them.
  • Its eyes : large, round, and dark.
  • Its body: the physiognomy is balanced. It is however longer than tall.
  • Its tail: according to the variants of the breed, drooping or erect. The end can roll up on itself.

Behavior With Others

The Shih Tzu is a small dog and like many small dog dogs, Its temper can be difficult at times. In connection with education, or rather a lack of education on the part of Its masters, the Shih Tzu can therefore be little obedient and rather independent.

However, if you make the effort to consider your Shih Tzu as a full-fledged dog and train It accordingly, you will succeed in establishing a beautiful relationship, and living with your Shih Tzu will be most harmonious.

The Shih Tzu has a reputation for expressing Its emotions a lot with small, high barks.

A requirement to establish certain rules of prevention. Watch out for children who carry their dog, stroke them while they sleep, etc. This small dog can easily feel in danger and will therefore be potentially aggressive if not respected.

The Shih Tzu can live with other species if It has learned to interact with them positively from Its adoption at 8 weeks. Beware of its small size which can make living with large animals difficult (example: horses.)


It’s quite possible to make your Shih Tzu a perfectly trained dog. For this, you will first have to adapt to your dog, Its temperament, and Its sensitivity. In addition, walking it every day, socializing it with other dogs regularly, and devoting time to its educational learning every day are the keys to a successful education.

Living Conditions

The Shih Tzu appreciates any type of dwelling place as long as Its personal comfort is assured. It’s above all an indoor dog. Thus, whether it’s the apartment in the city or a house in the country, it should be guaranteed a place of tranquility while providing a place capable of allowing It to exercise.

Sociable by nature, solitude does not suit It and the presence of Its masters will make it feel safe and happy.

The Shih Tzu is a companion dog, but like all dogs, it will need at least a 30-minute daily walk, even if you have a garden.It can live in an apartment without difficulty.

Many Shih Tzus prefer to stay warm and dry in bad weather because they don’t like wet or cold weather very much. Plus, their coat, especially when it’s long, can pick up a lot of snow. So be sure to equip them with a coat when winter is in full swing.

During summer, beware of heatstroke, to which the Shih Tzu’s short, flattened muzzle predisposes them.

Health & Maintenance

The most common illnesses in this dog are urinary tract infectionsear infections, and illnesses caused by fragile eyeballs. Its long hairs are the cause of these types of infections and it’s strongly recommended that you maintain Its coat as regularly and frequently as possible.

In addition, the female may experience difficulties when giving birth.

A-List of several genetic diseases that can affect the Shih Tzu :

  •  eye problems such as disease of dry eye, racial lagophthalmos that prevents the dog to completely close the eyelids, or even problems with supernumerary eyelashes or hair that rub against the surface of the eyeball and irritate.
  •  heart disease such as mitral or ventricular septal endocardiosis.
  • dermatological problems such as follicular cysts or atopic dermatitis.
  •  breathing problems related to the shape of his skull and which are grouped under the term brachycephalic syndrome. This syndrome makes the Shih Tzu particularly vulnerable to heatstroke.
  •  gastrointestinal diseases such as pyloric stenosis responsible for chronic vomiting.
  •  embryonic malformations that can be manifested by cleft lip and/or palate.
  •  neurological disorders such as herniated disc, Chiari syndrome, aseptic meningitis, or even the little white dog syndrome.

The life expectancy of a Shih Tzu is, on average, between 11 years and 14 years.

The Shih Tzu does not experience any hair loss in the fall or spring. The company of this dog is therefore recommended for people allergic to canine hair. Given its long hairs and the risk of disease that they can cause, special care given to grooming will be necessary.

It’s recommended, at least once a week, or even daily, to brush the dog in order to remove any knots that may have formed. In order to lighten the care, it’s possible to shorten the length of the hair without compromising the overall aesthetic of the Shih Tzu. In addition, you should clean Its eyes as well as Its ear canals.

The Shih Tzu must have a diet adapted to Its needs and Its daily activity. It’s not a great athlete but It can nevertheless exercise Itself during playful games. Thus, Its diet must be based on high-quality kibble. Regarding the ratio, it’s advisable to contact a veterinarian.

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